1. Composition of honey, the criteria evaluate the quality of honey:
Honey is a sweetener by the bees and insects live in a society built from the sweet nectar or service they get from living plants brought back, and then processed by the evaporation of water and the impact of enzymes they secreted. Usually bees screw cap containing holes was perfect.
b) The composition of Honey:
Includes water, sugar (mainly simple sugars), proteins, organic acids, yeast, vitamins and minerals.
- Water: one of the important criteria of honey, water rates in the world honey 16 to 22%, average 20%. Honey Vietnam has high rate of water: 22% of Italian bees, he said, is 22-28%. When water content 19% is not fermented honey and can be preserved longer. The higher the water content security easier and faster fermentation was sour, reduced quality of security.
- Road: The main components of honey, with three sugars mainly glucose, and fructo sacaro.
- Glucose and fructo are two simple sugars making up about 65-70% of the security, fructo have higher glucose level sweet and hard crystalline type of security should any of this content is higher for long remained the liquid state. When you eat honey, two sugars can be very easily absorbed directly without decomposition men.
- Sacaro also called sugar, is a multi-line should not be absorbed immediately into the blood. Also in honey also has about 3-4% Dextrin is a product of decomposition of starch in nectar, nature has no sweetness. Honey has mature content sacaro high.
- Protein (protein): from 0.04 to 0.3%, average 0.1%. Crude Protein including proteins and amino acids (16 types). The origin of this protein in nectar and honey from service due to weather. - Enzymes (men): The types of honey are men such as investaza, and less than diastaza lopaza, catalaza, peoxydaza. Diastaza metabolic Dextrin and starch into sugar, invectaza sacaro transformation into glucose and fructo also catalaza the decomposition of peroxides. - Acid: The honey can contain up to 0.13% acid including formic acid, oxalic, xitric, lactic .... - Mineral: The password has the following minerals: potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, phosphorus, save quỳnh, iodine and other elements is less than that of aluminum, lead, zinc, manganese content ... minerals in natural honey is about 0.03 to 2%. Security is always a dark color more minerals than your colored light.
- Vitamin: vitamin content of honey is not much but there are many types such as: B1, B2, B6, E, PP, F, K, H ... The mixture of these vitamins in active form of nature should just used volume was less effective for human good. The origin is the vitamin and the pollen.
- Quality Color: Color Quality to create the color of honey from bright yellow to dark brown and amber color. Color of molasses depends on nectar source that the different color characteristics.
- Aromatic ingredients and natural flavors: the honey is due to aromatic esters in creating your password and each has a particular taste characteristics. Color and flavor of honey is not a determinant of the nutritional composition of honey, but your decision to purchase price. In general, consumers preferred color your light, mild flavor and the type of security is often a higher price.
- HMF (hydrogen methyl fufural): a toxin formed by heat honey, honey is fermented or preserved long at high temperature. HMF is formed by the decomposition of glucose to the effects of heat. Honey after harvest storage temperature 25-30oC during 100 -300 on the HMF is 40mg/kg. If honey storage tanks DRUM set out in the sunshine with temperatures up to 40-50oC, then 10 to 40 days after HMF content will reach 40mg/kg.
- Types of honey: depending on the origin of the honey that can be divided into three main categories:
Nectar is a security exploit that bee from flowers such as coffee, receiving, Thieu litchi, rambutan, bauxite breath, sunflower forest, apple, ...
2. Harvesting honey.
Exploitation of honey depends on location and the men. For the strong man of great honey, covered with honey bees for the number of workers to work outside more to higher productivity. Today, security sources in Dong Nai Province and neighboring provinces such as Phuoc Binh, Dac Nong, Dak Lak, Gia Lai Province and the Mekong River Delta extends from October to June next year. Therefore, farmers need bees have long-term plan to exploit the full potential sources of security available to increase profits in the process of nurturing men.
The exploitation is carried out when security is two thirds of the holes for screw caps were so completely with water content in honey and low-quality security will be ensured. When mining to be conducted in the morning for your special because no new take on nectar and day. Use your camera type orientation center for 12 to not fly larvae. Rũ be back before the end of bees then use the stick on the cake cutting knife by putting screw cap from the bottom up so as not to break the bread. Place the cut for the barrel lid on all hands to turn back and increase speed gradually to your couch out in the village, then pay for the return of your completed return to bee populations continue feeding larvae and more to reserve your.
3. Preliminary processing and improve the quality of honey
3.1 Filter to remove impurities and security
Honey complete new back often and more impurities such as: the larvae, the honey, and dust samples beeswax ... Need to carry your filter is clean and not to your damaged. Password is used to filter the sieve with stainless steel mesh to filter from 8-32 lo/cm2 naked eye, the pre-filtration before then filtered in computer companies.
3.2 Separation of the honey
Normal honey is extracted from the farms have water content> 20%, conditions preserve your privacy is very difficult due to fermentation and was sour do not lower your quality guarantee for consumers and for export . To maintain product quality one solution method was used to separate density filter in your water out. This solution has advantages of security does not change the quality to meet export standards with water content <19%
3.3 Destroyed enzimes in honey
In one of your men if your water has the> 20% in the process of preserving privacy will be fermented and was sour. Privacy and security are increasingly dilute the crystalline fermentation process as quickly as in the crystalline Privacy fermented liquid is small but the water level is too high will be 22% -23% of your men to kill the men.Viec essential to ensure the quality of honey did not decrease during long storage.
Removal methods men: Heat up your 70-78oC for several welfare and then quickly cooled down to 25 ° C with this method men destroyed, but the quality remains the same and your honey are dealt with as long crystalline .
3.4 Honey crystallization and how the crystalline
4. Packaging and storage of honey:
5. The use of honey
Honey is a high quality foods are more consumers in the domestic and international popular and valued because it is the product of self nhien.Tai developed countries the majority of honey is used as a product the sugar. Honey used for this purpose in the form of liquid or crystalline, form of honey cake. Privacy is closed in the bottle wide mouth and small farmers. Can be used for honey in green tea, bitter tea as a beverage.
Honey can be used in foods such as: the honey into the bread and cakes to the cake than likely fine, hold long and nice colors. Besides your also used in processing and confectionery products on the packaging of these products are specified ingredients are honey, the product will be selling more. In addition, the cosmetic composition of honey is a moisturizing effect, smooth skin and hair-raising. Currently many countries have produced a variety of bath soaps and shampoos contain honey.